## Experiment 6: Centrifugal Pump

### OBJECTIVE

The objective of this experiment is to investigate the operating characteristics of a centrifugal pump used to transport water. Explore characteristic curves of varying head, power and efficiency vs. the volumetric flow rate. Obtain a head-flow curve for a centrifugal pump operating at inherent speed.

### INTRODUCTION

In a centrifugal pump, the mechanical energy of the liquid is increased by centrifugal action. The liquid enters through a suction connection concentric with the axis of an impeller. The impeller is a high speed rotary element with radial vanes integrally cast in it. Liquid flows outward in the spaces between the vanes and leaves the impeller at a considerably greater velocity with respect to the ground than at the entrance to the impeller. The liquid leaving the outer periphery of the pump is collected in a spiral casing called a volute. It then leaves the pump through a tangential discharge connection. In the volute the velocity head of the liquid from the impeller is converted into pressure head. The power is applied to the fluid by the impeller. The impeller is directly connected through a drive shaft to an electric motor.

The use of characteristic curves to present the operating characteristics of a pump is commonly done in industry. Characteristic curves can be used to aid engineers in the selection of pumps needed for their process and determine the maximum efficiency of a pump over a range of operating conditions.

The volumetric flow rate, Qv, for this pump is calculated from pressure drop readings obtained from an orifice meter

Where Cd is the orifice discharge coefficient, r is the density of the fluid, and DPo is the pressure drop across the orifice meter.

The pump head, H, is found from a derivation of Bernoulli's Equation.

In this equation, v is the velocity of the fluid (v1=Qv/A1; v2=Qv/A2), g is the gravitational constant, DPp is the pressure drop on the pump, and z is the height of the fluid from a reference point. The pump head is calculated from data obtained from the orifice meter and measurements of pipe lengths.

The efficiency of the pump Egr, can be calculated from the following equation

The power supplied by the motor, Pgr, is controlled by the dial located on the wattmeter. The power absorbed by the fluid, P, is found using the following equation where

Values of Constants

 Description of Constant Value Orifice Plate Diameter d 0.017 m Orifice discharge coefficient (Cd) 0.74 Change in elevation between pressure points 0.048 m Radius of pipe 0.00975 m

### EQUIPMENT

1. FM20 Centrifugal Pump Demonstration Unit
2. SWA1 integrating wattmeter
3. IFD4 Interface device
4. PC
5. Meter stick
6. 3.5" Floppy Disk

1. Cold water

### EQUIPMENT SETUP

A diagram of the apparatus is shown in Figure 1.

The equipment is comprised of a centrifugal pump (6) driven by an electric motor (19) mounted on a base. Also attached to the base is a clear acrylic reservoir (11) and associated pipework for continuous circulation. Water is used as the fluid and a drain valve (10) at the base of the reservoir allows the water to be drained after use.

Sensors are incorporated on the unit to facilitate analysis of the pump performance when connected to the parallel port of a suitable microcomputer via an Armfield "POD" interface. Additional pressure taps are included in the pipework to permit connection to appropriate calibration instruments.

The fluid flow through the centrifugal pump is regulated by a flow control valve (16) installed in the pump discharge pipework. The head/flow produced by the pump can be varied by adjustment of this valve. A valve (9) is installed in the inlet pipework to permit the effect of suction losses to be investigated.

A spare impeller is attached to the base in order to allow visual inspection of the impeller which is installed inside the volute of the water pump.

Figure 1. FM 20 Centrifugal Pump Unit

A brief description of the sensors that monitor the performance of the pump is given below.

A differential pressure sensor, SPW1, is connected to channel 1 on the IFD4.

• This sensor is a pressure sensitive piezoresistive device with appropriate signal conditioning contained in a protective case (13). It is connected to the appropriate pressure taps in the pipework using flexible tubing. This sensor is used to measure the pressure developed across the orifice plate (14) installed in pump discharge pipework. The volume flow rate of water through the pump is calculated using this measurement. Additional taps are provided for connection to appropriate instrumentation to facilitate calibration of the sensor.

A differential pressure sensor, SPW3, is connected to channel 2 on the IFD4.

• This sensor is a pressure sensitive piezoresistive device with appropriate signal conditioning contained in a protective case (4). It is connected to the appropriate pressure taps in the pipework using flexible tubing. This sensor is used to measure the difference in pressure between the inlet and outlet of the pump. The head developed by the pump is calculated using this measurement. Additional taps are provided for connection to appropriate instrumentation to facilitate calibration of the sensor.

A rotational speed sensor, SSO1, is connected to channel 3 on the IFD4.

• This sensor is comprised of a reflective infra-red opto switch (1) on a remote lead with appropriate signal conditioning contained in a protective case (3). It is used to measure the rotational speed of the motor/pump impeller. A non-contacting optical tachometer may be used to calibrate the rotational speed sensor.

A temperature sensor, STS1, is connected to channel 4 on the IFD4.

• This sensor is a temperature sensitive semiconductor device (17) on a remote lead with appropriate signal conditioning contained in a protective case. It is used to measure the temperature of the water entering the pump. The sensor is inserted through the wall of the pump inlet pipe utilizing a waterproof gland. The sensor can be removed for calibration using appropriate instrumentation.

An integrating wattmeter, SWA1, is connected to channel 5 on the IFD4.

• This is a separate unit and is connected between the pump power cord and one of the power outlets on the IFD4. This unit provides power to the pump and also provides a measurement of the electrical power supplied to the pump motor. The integrating wattmeter can be calibrated using a suitable twin trace oscilloscope.

Before starting the experiment, familiarize yourself with the centrifugal pump demonstration unit. Determine where the orifice meter is, where the pump is, and which direction the pump will transport the water.

Check to ensure that the water in the reservoir is within three (3) to five (5) inches from the top of the column. If the water is lower than five inches, air can become entrained in the pump when pumping at high speeds.

Supply power to the surge protector outlet strip below the computer monitor and to the IFD4 Interface Console located below the centrifugal pump unit. The IFD4 interface is a control panel that supplies power to the pump controller and to the sensors. It also serves as the interface to relay the data to the computer.

The pump controller (Integrating Wattmeter SWA1) is located to the left of the IFD4. The dial on the controller adjusts the speed of the pump.

Turn on the computer. Once Windows 95 is loaded start the FM20 Centrifugal Pump Demonstration Unit program by double clicking on the FM20 Capture icon on the Desktop. See Attachment 1 for additional information on the FM20 software.

Turn on the three power switches located on the IFD4 Interface Console. Make sure the two valves at locations 9 and 16 on Figure 1. are fully open.

To familiarize yourself with how this apparatus works, click on the Diagram button located in the upper left corner of your monitor. Use the dial on the pump controller (SWA1) to vary the power to the pump. This changes the pump rpm and flow rate. Click on the Tables button to view the data supplied by this program. Data is written to this table when you click on the Take Sample button.

When you are familiar with the apparatus, click on Labsheets on the menu bar and select the first experiment you were asked to perform. Information about the experiment and the steps needed to perform it will appear in a window. This information can be printed on the printer. Follow the instructions to complete each experiment you were asked to perform.

### THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

The best way to describe the operating characteristics of a centrifugal pump is through the use of characteristic curves:

This figure shows the interrelation of discharge pressure or head H, capacity Qv, and efficiency Egr, and power input Pgr, for a given pump at inherent speed (motor speed changes with load). The H – Qv curve shows the relation between the total head and capacity. The pressure increase created by a centrifugal pump is commonly expressed in terms of the head of the fluid following. This discharge head H is independent of the density of the fluid.

In the above figure, the head increases continuously as the capacity is decreased; this type of curve is referred to as a rising characteristic curve. A stable head – capacity characteristic curve is one in which only one capacity can be obtained at any one head. Pump selection should be made such that stable operating characteristics are available.

The Pgr – Qv curve shows the relation between power input and pump capacity. The Egr – Qv curve relates pump efficiency to capacity. For a pump having the characteristics of the above figure, maximum efficiency would occur at a volume flow rate of 0.7 dm^3/s, and the total head of about 8 [m].

### Equipment Set-Up

The pump running at the speed given by the instructor.

Valve V1 should be fully open, and remain so during the experiment

### PROCEDURE

1. Select maximum pump speed N1 by adjusting the power controller to X% (X given by the instructor).
2. Open inlet valve V1 fully. Close discharge valve V2 then start the pump (pump motor started under minimum load). Open discharge valve V2 fully and allow the water to circulate until all air bubbles have dispersed. Select “Diagrm” and note the value of the volume flow indicated at the bottom of the screen. Based on this value, decide a suitable decrement in flow rate corresponding to 10% decrease between every two adjacent sampling points, i.e., you will sample at 11 points between zero and maximum flow.
3. Select “Take Sample” with V2 fully opened.  This represents the largest flow rate point on the characteristic curve.
4. Gradually close valve V2 while watching the measured flow rate indicated in the corresponding box until the reading stabilizes at the desired value for the next sampling flow rate. Then select “Take Sample”.
5. Repeat step 4 above. The final sample point will correspond to valve V2 being fully closed.  DO NOT leave the pump in this condition of a closed outlet V2 as the water will be heated up.  Open V2 as soon as possible after you take the data for V2 being fully closed.
6. Change the pump speed as assigned by the instructor.  Then repeat Steps 2 to 5.
7. The recorded set of head-flow data may now be examined and assessed in the various selectable options of “Graphs”, “Tables” or downloaded into a spreadsheet.

### Data Analysis

1. Using data collected to draw the following graph: (N1, N2, N3 are the inherent speed, without load)
2. Explain the results (relative behavior of the different parameters)
3. Did the temperature remain constant?  Draw the water temperature as a function of time. What causes the water temperature to change? What does it affect on the experiment result?
4. Explore how Ni (the pump velocity measured during each sampling) changes as a function of DPp and explain it.

Report

A technical version report must be submitted in both printed copy and electronic copy on the due date (see the announcement board).

## Attachment 1

The FM20 software program running in Windows 95 on a PC will display the measurements from the measurement sensors and calculate appropriate variables. A maximum of 30 data samples can be collected in a table. The following variables are also calculated and placed into the table.

1. Volume flow rate, Qv, (m3/sec)
2. Pump total head, Hd, (m)
3. Pump power output, P, (Watt)
4. Overall efficiency, Egr, (%)

The software can display the following performance curves and copy them to a printer.

1. Rotational Speed vs Volume Flow Rate
2. Motor Input Power vs Volume Flow Rate
3. Pump Total Head vs Volume Flow Rate
4. Pump Power Output vs Volume Flow Rate
5. Overall Efficiency vs Volume Flow Rate

The data can be saved to a text file which can be imported into a spreadsheet. The file that is created is a comma delimited file. At this point in time, the files will have to be saved to a 3.5" floppy disk. They can also be saved to the student directory on the hard drive and then copied to a floppy disk.

 NOTE: A 3.5" floppy disk will be needed for this experiment.

To start the software double click on the FM20 Capture icon on the Desktop. The software will prompt you for USER DATA. Fill out the information asked for on the form and click on OK. The software will finish loading. Information about the unit, software and instructions for 6 exercises are included in the help files. A short summary of the items on the menu bar is given below. A more detailed explanation can be found in the software help file.

1. File - Includes commands to save and retrieve files, a clear command to erase the data file from the table.
2. Install - Instructions for installation of the unit.
3. Software - Help file that gives information about the software.
4. Nomenclature - Explanation of the variables used in the calculations.
5. LabSheets - Information about centrifugal pumps and instructions for performing 7 separate exercises.
6. Parameters - Lists the constants used in the calculation of the variables.
7. Help - Listing of the help files.

A short summary of each button on the button bar is given below.

1. Diagrm - A window pops up with a graphic of the pump unit. The graphic shows the values of the measured variables. The calculated variables are shown along the bottom of the graphic.
2. Charts - A window pops up with a bar chart showing the values of the measured variables. The calculated variables are shown along the bottom of the graphic.
3. Graphs - A graph pops up showing a plot of a selected variable vs Total Flow Rate. Along the right side are buttons used to select the variable (s) for graphing; to change the scaling on the graph; to change the style of the graph; to print the graph; to copy the graph to wmf format.
4. Tables - A tabular display of the data collected when the Take Sample button is pressed. The first five columns show the data from the sensors on the FM20, while the remaining columns show the calculated results. A time stamp is included with each reading. This table can be scrolled up and down as necessary to observe a maximum of 30 samples.
5. Calibrt - Two screens allowing zero and span adjustment of the sensors, and permitting tests to demonstrate the linearity of the sensors.